Glossary of terms

µL

microliter

3TC

lamivudine

Ab

antibody

ABC

abacavir

ABMT

autologous bone marrow transplantation

ACIP

CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, USA

ACTH

adrenocorticotrophic hormone

ADCC

antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

AFAO

Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations

Ag

antigen

AIDS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

AI

AIDS-defining illness

ALT

alanine aminotransferase or alanine transaminase

Anti-HBc

antibody to hepatitis B core antigen

Anti-HBe

antibody to hepatitis B e antigen

Anti-HBs

antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen

ART

antiretroviral therapy

ARVS

acute retroviral syndrome

ASHM

Australasian Society for HIV Medicine

AST

aspartate aminotransferase

ATV

atazanavir

AUC

area under the curve

AZT

zidovudine or azidothymidine or ZDV

B cell

a type of immune cell

bd

twice daily (Latin: bis die)

bDNA

branched deoxyribonucleic acid

BMD

bone mineral density

CAF

cell-associated factor

cART

combination antiretroviral therapy

CHOP

chemotherapy (cyclophosphanud, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone)

CCR5

chemokine coreceptor on the surface of cells

CD4

cell a helper T-cell which carries the CD4 surface antigen. CD4 cells are the primary target of HIV and CD4 cell numbers decline during HIV disease.

CD8

cell a killer or cytotoxic T-cell which carries the CD8 surface antigen.

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA

CI

confidence interval

CIN

cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

CMV

cytomegalovirus

CNS

central nervous system

CPE

CNS penetration-effectiveness

CRF

circulating recombinant form

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

CT

computed tomography

CTL

cytotoxic T lymphocyte

CVD

cardiovascular disease

CXCR4

chemokine receptor

d4T

stavudine

DAA

Direct Acting Antivral

DAD

Data Collection on Adverse events of Anti-HIV Drugs

DC

dendritic cell

DC-SIGN

dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin

ddC

zalcitabine

ddI

didanosine

DEXA

dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

DHHS

US Department of Health and Human Services

DILS

diff use infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome

DLV

delavirdine

DM

diabetes mellitus

DN

double negative

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

DOT

directly observed therapy

DRV

darunavir

EBV

Epstein Barr virus

EC

elite controllers

EFV

efavirenz

EIA

enzyme immunosorbent assay

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

ELISPOT

enzyme-linked immunospot assay

ENF

enfuvirtide

ERCP

endoscopic retrograde cholangiography

ETV

etravirine

EVG

elvitegravir

FasL

Fas ligand

FBC

full blood count

FDA

Food and Drug Administration USA

FPV

fosamprenavir

FTA-Abs

fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test

FTC

emtricitabine

GBV-C

flavivirus GB virus-C

GCSF

granulocyte colony stimulating factor

GH

growth hormone

GHRH

growth hormone-releasing hormone

GI

gastrointestinal

GORD

gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

gp120

glycoprotein on surface of HIV which binds to the CD4 receptor

gp41

glycoprotein on the surface of HIV involved in fusion between HIV and the CD4 cell

HAART

highly active antiretroviral therapy (see cART, now preferred terminology)

HAD

HIV-1-associated dementia

HAND

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

HAV

hepatitis A virus

HBsAG

hepatitis B surface antigen

HBeAG

hepatitis B envelope antigen

HBV

hepatitis B virus

HCC

hepatocellular carcinoma

HCV

hepatitis C virus

HD

Hodgkin’s disease

HDL

high-density lipoprotein

HEPS

highly exposed but persistently seronegative

HHV8

human herpesvirus type 8

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

HIV-1

human immunodeficiency virus-1

HIV-2

human immunodeficiency virus-2

HIVAN

HIV- associated nephropathy

HLA

human leukocyte antigens

HPLC

high-performance liquid chromatography

HPV

human papilloma virus

HSV

herpes simplex virus

HZ

herpes zoster

IDSA

Infectious Diseases Society of America

IDU

injecting drug use

IDV

indinavir

IFN

interferon

Ig

immunoglobin

IL

interleukin

IM

intramuscularly

INR

international normalised ratio (a test of blood clotting)

IRD

immune restoration disease

ISR

injection site reactions

ITP

immune thrombocytopenic purpura

IU

international unit (measurement)

IV

intravenous

JCV

John Cunningham virus

KGF

keratin growth factor

KOH

potassium hydroxide

KS

Kaposi’s sarcoma

LDL

low-density lipoprotein

LFT

liver function test

LN

lymph node

LP

lumbar puncture

LPS

lipopolysaccharide

LPV

lopinavir

LPV/r

lopinavir/ritonavir

LTNP

long-term non-progressors

LTR

long-terminal repeat

MAC

Mycobacterium avium complex

MACS

Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

mDC

myeloid dendritic cells

MDMA

Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (Ecstasy)

MDR

multidrug resistance

MHC

major histocompatibility complex

MIC

minimum inhibitory concentration

MIP

macrophage inflammatory proteins

mL

millilitre

mmol

millimole

MND

mild neurocognitive disorder

MRI

magnetic resonance image

MRS

magnetic resonance spectroscopy

MRSA

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

MSM

men who have sex with men

MTCT

mother-to-child transmission

MF

macrophages

NAA

nucleic acid amplification

NAM

nucleoside analogue mutation

NF

nuclear factor

NFV

nelfinavir

NHL

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

NNRTI

non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

NPEP

non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis

NRTI

nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI)

NSI

non-syncytium inducing

NVP

nevirapine

OC

oesophageal candidiasis

OHL

oral hairy leukoplakia

OI

opportunistic infection

ORF

open reading frame

p24

a core HIV protein, the primary protein detected by the HIV antigen test

PBMC

peripheral blood mononuclear cells

PBS

Pharmaceutical benefits Scheme

PCNSL

primary central nervous system lymphoma

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

PD

programmed death

PEP

post-exposure prophylaxis

pg/mL

picogram per millilitre

PI

protease inhibitors

PI/r

protease inhibitors boosted by ritonavir

PJP

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia previously Pneumocystis carinii

PK

pharmacokinetic

PLA

poly-L-lactic acid

PML

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

PNG

Papua New Guinea

PPAR

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

PTH

parathyroid hormone

qd

every day (Latin: quaqua die)

qds

to be taken four times a day (Latin: quater die sumendum)

RAL

raltegravir

RANTES

regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted

RNA

ribonucleic acid

RPR

rapid plasmin reagin

RT

reverse transcriptase

RT-PCR

reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

RTV

ritonavir

SAS

Special Access Scheme

SAT

subcutaneous adipose tissue

SDF

stromal cell-derived factor

s100

a section of the Pharmaceutical benefits Scheme which provides access to highly specialised drugs

SI

syncytium inducing

SIL

squamous intraepithelial lesions

SIV

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

SMART

study Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy study

SN

sensory neuropathy

SP

single positive

SQV

saquinavir

SSRI

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

STI

sexually transmitted or transmissible infection

SVR

sustained virological response

T-20

enfuvirtide

TAMs

thymidine analogue mutations

TB

tuberculosis

T cell

type of lymphocyte

CTRL

T cell receptors

td

three times daily (Latin: ter die)

tds

to be taken three times a day (Latin: ter die sumendum)

TDF

tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir

TDM

therapeutic drug monitoring

TEN

toxic epidermal necrolysis

TGA

Therapeutic Drugs Administration

Th1

type 1 helper lymphocytes

Th2

type 2 lymphocytes

TLR

toll like receptors

TNF

tumour necrosis factor

TP-PA

Treponema pallidum particle agglutination

TPV

tipranavir

TREC

T-cell receptor excision circles

Treg

specialised regulatory T cells

TRIM5alpha

human tripartite motif 5 alpha

TSG

tumour suppressor gene

TSLP

thymic stromal lymphopoietin

TST

tuberculin skin test

UNAIDS

The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS

USA

United States of America

UTR

untranslated region

VAT

visceral adipose tissue

VL

viral load

VLDL

very low-density lipoprotein

VM

vacuolar myelopathy

VRE

vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus

VZV

varicella zoster virus

ZDV

zidovudine